Еозинофільний гранульоматоз з поліангіїтом: сучасний погляд на патогенез та лікування (літературний огляд)

O. M. Okhotnikova, O. H. Kvacheniuk, K. V. Mellina, O. V. Ponochevna

Анотація


Еозинофільний гранульоматоз з поліангіїтом (ЕГПА), раніше відомий як синдром Чарджа—Стросса, являє собою некротизуючий васкуліт судин малого і середнього калібру, що характеризується клінічними проявами астми, гіпереозинофілією крові, тканин та позалегеневими симптомами. Не дивлячись на те, що ЕГПА зустрічається досить рідко, останніми роками дане захворювання є об'єктом уважного вивчення. Це обумовлено тим, що ЕГПА є концептуально складною патологією, яка має подвійну категоризацію із системними васкулітами (СВ) та гіпереозинофільними синдромами (ГЕС). На даний момент залишаються відкритими питання патофізіологічної і діагностичної невизначеності хвороби, адже й досі немає повного розуміння взаємодії між еозинофілами та антинейтрофільними цитоплазматичними антитілами (АНЦА), які є особливостями патогенезу даного васкуліту. Результати останніх досліджень вказують на фенотипові підтипи ЕГПА на підставі АНЦА-статусу, але поки що недостатньо інформації щодо методів лікування з урахуванням даних фенотипів хвороби. ЕГПА також залишається діагностичною проблемою, тому що протягом тривалого часу може розглядатися лише в площині алергічної патології. Астма може бути основним проявом хвороби, а хронічна потреба у прийомі глюкокортикостероїдів може маскувати інші ознаки захворювання. Наразі активно вивчається імунна дисрегуляція і генетична схильність організму пацієнтів з ЕГПА, що може вирішити проблему класифікації з уточненням підтипів хвороби і надати можливість вчасно діагностувати дане захворювання, а також використовувати спеціально адаптовані методи лікування.

Автори заявляють про відсутність конфлікту інтересів.


Ключові слова


еозинофільний гранульоматоз з поліангіїтом; синдром Чарджа—Стросса; гіпереозинофільний синдром; бронхіальна астма

Повний текст:

PDF

Посилання


Beketova TV, Volkov MYu. (2016). The 2015 International guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Rheumatology Science and Practice. 54(2): 129—137. https://doi.org/10.14412/1995-4484-2016-129-137

Azar N, Guillevin L, Huong Du LT, Herreman G, Meyrier A, Godeau P. (1989). Symptomatic urogenital manifestations of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss angiitis: analysis of 8 of 165 patients. J Urol. 142(1): 136—138. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(17)38686-X

Berti A, Cornec D, Crowson CS, Specks U, Matteson EL. (2017). The epidemiology of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a twenty-year US population-based study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 69(12): 2338—2350. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.40313; PMid:28881446 PMCid:PMC5711593

Bhamra K, Luqmani R. (2012). Damage assessment in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 14(6): 494—500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11926-012-0291-1; PMid:22983618

Birck R et al. (2006). Serial ANCA determinations for monitoring disease activity in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis: systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 47(1): 15—23. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.09.022; PMid:16377381

Choi YH, Im JG, Han BK, Kim JH, Lee KY, Myoung NH. (2000). Thoracic manifestation of Churg-Strauss syndrome: radiologic and clinical findings. Chest. 117(1): 117—124. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.117.1.117; PMid:10631208

Churg A. (2001). Recent advances in the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Mod Pathol. 14(12): 1284—1293. https://doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.3880475; PMid:11743052

Churg J, Strauss L. (1951). Allergic granulomatosis, allergic angiitis, and periarteritis nodosa. Am J Pathol. 27(2): 277—301.

Cohen P, Pagnoux C, Mahr A, Arene JP, Mouthon L, Le Guern V et al. (2007). Churg-Strauss syndrome with poor-prognosis factors: a prospective multicenter trial comparing glucocorticoids and six or twelve cyclophosphamide pulses in fortyeight patients. Arthritis Rheum. 15;57(4): 686–693. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.22679; PMid:17471546

Comarmond C., Pagnoux C, Khellaf M, Cordier JF et al. (2013). Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss): clinical characteristics and long-term followup of the 383 patients enrolled in the French Vasculitis Study Group cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 65(1): 270–281. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.37721; PMid:23044708.

Cordier JF, Cottin V, Guillevin L, Bel E, Bottero P, Dalhoff K et al. (2013). L5. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss). Presse Med. 42(4 Pt 2): 507–510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2013.02.308; PMid:23490637

Cottin V, Bel E, Bottero P, Dalhoff K, Humbert M, Lazor R et al. (2016). Respiratory manifestations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss). Eur Respir J. 48(5): 1429–1441. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00097-2016; PMid:27587545

Danieli MG, Cappelli M, Malcangi G, Logullo F, Salvi A, Danieli G. (2004). Long-term effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 63(12): 1649–1654. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2003.015453; PMid:15547090 PMCid:PMC1754837

Dejaco C et al. (2015). Serum biomarkers in patients with relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss). PLoS One. 26;10(3): e0121737. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121737; PMid:25812008 PMCid:PMC4374913

Dennert RM, van Paassen P, Schalla S, Kuznetsova T, Alzand BS, Staessen JA et al. (2010). Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 62(2): 627–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.27263; PMid:20112390

Durel CA, Berthiller J, Caboni S, Jayne D, Ninet J, Hot A. (2016). Long-term follow-up of a multicenter cohort of 101 patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss). Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 68(3): 374–387. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22686; PMid:26315340

Erzurum SC, Underwood GA, Hamilos DL, Waldron JA. (1989). Pleural effusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Chest. 95(6): 1357–1359. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.95.6.1357; PMid:2721280

Exley AR et al. (1997). Development and initial validation of the Vasculitis Damage Index for the standardized clinical assessment of damage in the systemic vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum. 40(2): 371–380. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780400222; PMid:9041949

Faverio P, Bonaiti G, Bini F, Vaghi A, Pesci A. (2018). Mepolizumab as the first targeted treatment for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a review of current evidence and potential place in therapy. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 7;14: 2385–2396. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S159949; PMid:30573961 PMCid:PMC6292233

Finkielman JD et al. (2007). Antiproteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and disease activity in Wegener granulomatosis. Ann Intern Med. 147(9): 611–619. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-147-9-200711060-00005; PMid:17975183

Flossmann O et al. (2011). Longterm patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 70(3): 488-494. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2010.137778; PMid:21109517

Gaffey C, Chun B, Harvey JC, Manz HJ. (1986). Phenytoin-induced systemic granulomatous vasculitis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 110(2): 131–135.

Gioffredi A, Maritati F, Oliva E, Buzio C. (2014). Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview. Front Immunol. 3;5: 549. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00549; PMid:25404930 PMCid:PMC4217511

Grayson PC et al. (2015). Value of commonly measured laboratory tests as biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 54(8): 1351–1359. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keu427; PMid:25406357 PMCid:PMC4502335

Groh M, Pagnoux C, Baldini C, Bel E, Bottero P, Cottin V et al. (2015). Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA) Consensus Task Force recommendations for evaluation and management. Eur J Intern Med. 26(7): 545–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2015.04.022; PMid:25971154

Guillevin L, Guittard T, Bletry O, Godeau P, Rosenthal P. (1987). Systemic necrotizing angiitis with asthma: causes and precipitating factors in 43 cases. Lung. 165(3): 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02714432; PMid:3108593

Guillevin L, Lhote F, Gallais V et al. (1995). Gastrointestinal tract involvement in polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 146(4): 260–267.

Guillevin L, Lhote F, Gayraud M et al. (1996). Prognostic factors in polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome. A prospective study in 342 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 75(1): 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005792-199601000-00003; PMid:8569467

Guillevin L, Pagnoux C, Seror R, Mahr A, Mouthon L, Le Toumelin P. (2011). The Five-Factor Score revisited: assessment of prognoses of systemic necrotizing vasculitides based on the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG) cohort. Medicine (Baltimore). 90(1): 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0b013e318205a4c6; PMid:21200183

Harrold LR et al. (2005). Incidence of Churg-Strauss syndrome in asthma drug users: a population-based perspective. J Rheumatol. 32(6): 1076–1080.

Hauser T, Mahr A, Metzler C et al. (2008). The leucotriene receptor antagonist montelukast and the risk of Churg-Strauss syndrome: a case-crossover study. Thorax. 63(8): 677–682. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2007.087825; PMid:18276721

Hazebroek MR, Kemna MJ, Schalla S, Sanders-van Wijk S, Gerretsen SC, Dennert R et al. (2015). Prevalence and prognostic relevance of cardiac involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis: eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Int J Cardiol. 15;199: 170-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.06.087; PMid:26209947

Herlyn K et al. (2008). Stable incidence of systemic vasculitides in schleswig-holstein, Germany. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 105(19): 355–361. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2008.0355; PMid:19629246 PMCid:PMC2696872

Imai H, Nakamoto Y, Hirokawa M, Akihama T, Miura AB. (1989). Carbamazepine-induced granulomatous necrotising angiitis with acute renal failure. Nephron. 51(3): 405–408. https://doi.org/10.1159/000185332; PMid:2918954

Jachiet M, Samson M, Cottin V, Kahn JE, Le Guenno G, Bonniaud P et al. (2016). Anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) in refractory and relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss): data on seventeen patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 68(9): 2274–2282. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.39663

PMid:26946346

Jakiela B, Sanak M, Szczeklik W, Sokolowska B, Plutecka H, Mastalerz L et al. (2011). Both Th2 and Th17 responses are involved in the pathogenesis of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 29;1(64): 23—34.

Jarzobski J, Ferry J, Wombolt D, Fitch DM, Egan JD. (1970). Vasculitis with allopurinol therapy. Am Heart J. 79(1): 116—21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(70)90401-1

Jennette JC. (2013). Overview of the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. Clin Exp Nephrol. 17(5): 603—606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-013-0869-6; PMid:24072416 PMCid:PMC4029362

Jennette JC, Falk RJ. (2014). Pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodymediated disease. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 10(8): 463—473. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2014.103; PMid:25003769

Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Andrassy K, Bacon PA, Churg J, Gross WL et al. (1994). Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference. Arthritis Rheum. 37(2): 187—192. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780370206; PMid:8129773

Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Bacon PA et al. (2013). 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum. 65(1): 1—11. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.37715; PMid:23045170.

Jennette JC, Xiao H, Falk R, Gasim AM. (2011). Experimental models of vasculitis and glomerulonephritis induced by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. Contrib Nephrol. 169: 211—220. https://doi.org/10.1159/000314776; PMid:21252521 PMCid:PMC5507587

Khoury P, Zagallo P, Talar-Williams C et al. (2012). Serum biomarkers are similar in Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Allergy. 67(9): 1149—1156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2012.02873.x; PMid:22775568 PMCid:PMC3418460

Koike H, Sobue G. (2013). Clinicopathological features of neuropathy in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Clin Exp Nephrol. 17(5): 683—685. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-012-0767-3; PMid:23385777

Kung KL, Yee PK. (2015). Churg-Strauss syndrome from an orthopaedic perspective. Hong Kong Med J. 21: 565–568. https://doi.org/10.12809/hkmj144357; PMid:26634374

Kupczyk M, Kuna P. (2018). Benralizumab: an anti-IL-5 receptor alpha monoclonal antibody in the treatment of asthma. Immunotherapy. 10(5): 349–359. https://doi.org/10.2217/imt-2017-0161; PMid:29359607

Lanham JG, Elkon KB, Pusey CD, Hughes GR. (1984). Systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia: a clinical approach to the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Medicine (Baltimore). 63(2): 65—81. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005792-198403000-00001; PMid:6366453

Leiferman KM, Peters MS. (2018). Eosinophil-related disease and the skin. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 6(5): 1462—1482.e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.06.002; PMid:29902530

Mahr A, Guillevin L, Poissonnet M, Ayme S. (2004). Prevalences of polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome in a French urban multiethnic population in 2000: a capture-recapture estimate. ArthritisRheum. 51(1): 92—99. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.20077; PMid:14872461

Martin RM, Wilton LV, Mann RD. (1999). Prevalence of Churg-Strauss syndrome, vasculitis, eosinophilia and associated conditions: retrospective analysis of 58 prescription-event monitoring cohort studies. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 8(3): 179—189. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1557(199905/06)8:3<179::AID-PDS414>3.0.CO;2-K

Masi AT, Hunder GG, Lie JT, Michel BA, Bloch DA, Arend WP et al. (1990). The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classiifcation of Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis and angiitis). Arthritis Rheum. 33(8): 1094—1100. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780330806; PMid:2202307

Metzler C, Csernok E, Gross WL, Hellmich B. (2010). Interferon-alpha for maintenance of remission in Churg-Strauss syndrome: a long-term observational study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 28;1 (57): 24—30.

Metzler C, Lamprecht P, Hellmich B, Reuter M, Arlt AC, Gross WL. (2005). Leucoencephalopathy after treatment of Churg-Strauss syndrome with interferon α. Ann Rheum Dis. 64(8): 1242—1243. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2004.032664; PMid:16014692 PMCid:PMC1755617

Metzler C, Schnabel A, Gross WL, Hellmich B. (2008). A phase II study of interferon alpha for the treatment of refractory Churg-Strauss syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 26;3(49): 35—40.

Millet A et al. (2013). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. Is it time to split up the group? Ann Rheum Dis. 72(8): 1273—1279. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203255; PMid:23606701

Mohammad AJ, Hot A, Arndt F, Moosig F, Guerry MJ, Amudala N et al. (2016). Rituximab for the treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss). Ann Rheum Dis. 75(2): 396—401. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206095; PMid:25467294

Moosig F, Bremer JP, Hellmich B, Holle JU, Holl-Ulrich K, Laudien M et al. (2013). A vasculitis centre based management strategy leads to improved outcome in eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA): monocentric experiences in 150 patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 72(6): 1011—1017. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-201531; PMid:22887848

Mouthon L, Khaled M, Cohen P, Guillevin L, Mouthon L, Subra JF. (2001). Systemic small sized vessel vasculitis after massive antigen inhalation. Ann Rheum Dis. 60(9): 903—904.

Novikov P, Moiseev S, Smitienko I, Zagvozdkina E. (2016). Rituximab as induction therapy in relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a report of 6 cases. Joint Bone Spine. 83(1): 81—84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2015.04.016; PMid:26494587

Office of National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk

Pagnoux C, Groh M. (2016). Optimal therapy and prospects for new medicines in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 12(10): 1059—1067. https://doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2016.1191352; PMid:27191665

Pagnoux C, Guillevin L. (2010). Churg-Strauss syndrome: evidence for disease subtypes? Curr Opin Rheumatol. 22(1): 21—28. https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e328333390b; PMid:19851111

Pagnoux C, Guilpain P, Guillevin L. (2007). Churg-Strauss syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 19(1): 25—32. https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e3280119854; PMid:17143092

Park KE, Chipps DR, Benson EM. (1999). Necrotizing vasculitis secondary to propylthiouracil presenting as purpura fulminans. Br. J. Rheumatol. 38(8): 790—792. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/38.8.790; PMid:10501437

Pelа G et al. (2006). Cardiac involvement in the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Am. J. Cardiol. 15;97(10): 1519—1524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.11.088; PMid:16679097

Polzer K, Karonitsch T, Neumann T, Eger G, Haberler C et al. (2008). Eotaxin-3 is involved in Churg-Strauss syndrome – a serum marker closely correlating with disease activity. Rheumatology (Oxford). 47(6): 804—808. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken033; PMid:18397958

Puechal X, Pagnoux C, Baron G, Quemeneur T, Neel A, Agard C et al. (2017). Adding azathioprine to remission-induction glucocorticoids for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss), microscopic polyangiitis, or polyarteritis nodosa without poor prognosis factors: a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 69(11): 2175—2186. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.40205; PMid:28678392

Puechal X, Rivereau P, Vinchon F. (2008). Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with omalizumab. Eur J Intern Med. 19(5): 364—366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2007.09.001; PMid:18549941

Ramentol-Sintas M, Martinez-Valle F, Solans-Laque R. (2012). Churg-Strauss Syndrome: an evolving paradigm. Autoimmun Rev. 12(2): 235—240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2012.07.009; PMid:22796280

Ribi C, Cohen P, Pagnoux C, Mahr A, Arene JP, Lauque D et al. (2008). Treatment of Churg-Strauss syndrome without poor-prognosis factors: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study of seventy-two patients. Arthritis Rheum. 58(2): 586—594. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.23198; PMid:18240234

Rosenwasser L. (1999). Leukotriene modifiers: new drugs, old and new reactions. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 103;3(1): 374—375. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70459-8

Roufosse F, Weller PF. (2010). Practical approach to the patient with hypereosinophilia. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 126(1): 39—44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.04.011; PMid:20538328 PMCid:PMC2902584

Sable-Fourtassou R, Cohen P, Mahr A, Pagnoux C, Mouthon L, Jayne D et al. (2005). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1;143(9): 632–638. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-143-9-200511010-00006; PMid:16263885

Sada KE, Amano K, Uehara R, et al. (2014). Research Committee on Intractable Vasculitides, the Ministry of Health, Labour, Welfare of Japan. A nationwide survey on the epidemiology and clinical features of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) in Japan. Mod Rheumatol. 24(4): 640–644. https://doi.org/10.3109/14397595.2013.857582; PMid:24289197

Samson M, Puechal X, Devilliers H, Ribi C, Cohen P, Stern M et al. (2013). Long-term outcomes of 118 patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) enrolled in two prospective trials. J Autoimmun. 43: 60—69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2013.03.003; PMid:23590801

Sanders JS et al. (2006). Prediction of relapses in PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis by assessing responses of ANCA titres to treatment. Rheumatology (Oxford). 45(6): 724—729. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kei272; PMid:16399845

Santos YA, Silva BR, Lira PN et al. (2017). Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome) as a differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndromes. Respir Med Case Rep. 8;21: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2017.03.006; PMid:28337408 PMCid:PMC5352719

Simon HU, Rothenberg ME, Bochner BS, Weller PF, Wardlaw AJ, Wechsler ME et al. (2010). Refining the definition of hypereosinophilic syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 126(1): 45—49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.03.042; PMid:20639008 PMCid:PMC3400024

Sinico RA, Di Toma L, Maggiore U, Tosoni C, Bottero P, Sabadini E et al. (2006). Renal involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 47(5): 770—779. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.01.026; PMid:16632015

Smedema J et al. (2004). Cardiac involvement of Churg Strauss syndrome demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 22;6(36): 75—78.

Suppiah R et al. (2011). A cross-sectional study of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 in systemic vasculitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 50(5): 899—905. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keq400; PMid:21156667

Szczeklik W et al. (2010). Pulmonary findings in Churg-Strauss syndrome in chest X-rays and high resolution computed tomography at the time of initial diagnosis. Clin Rheumatol. 29(10): 1127—1134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-010-1530-3; PMid:20623310

Tai P, Holt ME, Denny P, Gibbs AR, Williams BD, Spry CJ. (1984). Deposition of eosinophil cationic protein in granulomas in allergic granulomatosis and vasculitis: the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Br Med J (Clin. Res. Ed). 18;289(6442): 400—402. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.289.6442.400; PMid:6432117 PMCid:PMC1442412

Terrier B, Bieche I, Maisonobe T, Laurendeau I, Rosenzwajg M et al. (2010). Interleukin-25: a cytokine linking eosinophils and adaptive immunity in Churg-Strauss syndrome. Blood. 25; 116(22): 4523—4531. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-02-267542; PMid:20729468

Thai LH et al. (2013). Are anti-proteinase-3 ANCA a useful marker of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) relapses? Results of a retrospective study on 126 patients. Autoimmun Rev. 13(3): 313—318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2013.11.003; PMid:24225075

Thiel J, Troilo A, Salzer U, Schleyer T, Halmschlag K, Rizzi M et al. (2017). Rituximab as induction therapy in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis refractory to conventional immunosuppressive treatment: a 36-month follow-up analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 5(6): 1556—1563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2017.07.027; PMid:28916432

Tian BP, Zhang GS, Lou J, Zhou HB, Cui W. (2018). Efficacy and safety of benralizumab for eosinophilic asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Asthma. 55(9): 956—965. https://doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2017.1379534; PMid:29211545

Tomasson G et al. (2012). Value of ANCA measurements during remission to predict a relapse of ANCA-associated vasculitis — a meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 51(1): 100—109. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ker280; PMid:22039267 PMCid:PMC3276294

Vaglio A, Buzio C, Zwerina J. (2013). Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss): state of the art. Allergy. 68(3): 261—273. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.12088; PMid:23330816

Valent P, Klion AD, Horny HP, Roufosse F, Gotlib J, Weller PF et al. (2012). Contemporary consensus proposal on criteria and classification of eosinophilic disorders and related syndromes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 130(3): 607—612.e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.019; PMid:22460074 PMCid:PMC4091810

Varricchi G, Bagnasco D, Borriello F, Heffler E, Canonica GW. (2016). Interleukin-5 pathway inhibition in the treatment of eosinophilic respiratory disorders: evidence and unmet needs. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 16(2): 186—200. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACI.0000000000000251; PMid:26859368 PMCid:PMC4768650

Watts RA, Lane S, Scott DG. (2005). What is known about the epidemiology of the vasculitides? Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 19(2): 191—207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2004.11.006; PMid:15857791

Wechsler ME, Akuthota P, Jayne D et al. (2017). Mepolizumab or placebo for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. N Engl J Med. 18;376(20): 1921—1932. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1702079; PMid:28514601 PMCid:PMC5548295

Wechsler ME, Wong DA, Miller MK, Lawrence-Miyasaki L. (2009). Churg-Strauss syndrome in patients treated with omalizumab. Chest. 136(2): 507—518. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.08-2990; PMid:19411292

Weller PF, Bubley GJ. (1994). The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Blood. 15;83(10): 2759–2779. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V83.10.2759.2759; PMid:8180373

Wieczorek S, Hellmich B, Gross WL, Epplen JT. (2008). Associations of Churg-Strauss syndrome with the HLA-DRB1 locus, and relationship to the genetics of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides: comment on the article by Vaglio et al. Arthritis Rheum. 58(1): 329—330. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.23209; PMid:18163478

Wieczorek S, Holle JU, Epplen JT. (2010). Recent progress in the genetics of Wegener's granulomatosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 22(1): 8—14. https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e3283331151; PMid:19864953

Worthy S et al. (1998). Churg Strauss syndrome: the spectrum of pulmonary CT findings in 17 patients. AJR. 170(2): 297—300. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.170.2.9456932; PMid:9456932

Zwerina J et al. (2011). Eotaxin-3 in Churg-Strauss syndrome: a clinical and immunogenetic study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 50(10): 1823—1827. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keq445; PMid:21266446

Zwerina J et al. (2009). The emergence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies may precede the clinical onset of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 60(2): 626—627. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24285; PMid:19180487

Zwerina J, Eger G, Englbrecht M, Manger B, Schett G. (2009). Churg-Strauss syndrome in childhood: a systematic literature review and clinical comparison with adult patients. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 39(2): 108—115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2008.05.004; PMid:18639318


Посилання

  • Поки немає зовнішніх посилань.