Current trends in individual rehabilitation programs for children with cerebral palsy: a crucial step towards improving quality of life (literature review)




cerebral palsy, individual program, rehabilitation, quality of life, family-oriented care, socialization of children, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health


Approaches to treating and rehabilitating children with cerebral palsy now focus on maximizing their environment and increasing their independence in everyday life. The study of different techniques allows us to consider the needs and goals of families when developing individualized treatment and rehabilitation programs, contributing to the optimal development of the child.

Purpose - to study the criteria for developing individual rehabilitation programs, analyzing the examination of children with cerebral palsy, evaluating family-centered care, researching multidisciplinary rehabilitation teams, and analyzing the provision of medical and rehabilitation services and their impact on the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy.

A comprehensive and structured search of scientific sources in scientometric databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and specialized journals in pediatrics and neurology was performed to conduct a systematic literature review. The literature search and analysis were conducted over the past 10 years (from 2012 to 2022). For the bibliometric analysis, the method of data analysis using the VOSviewer program was used.

Several important aspects related to the provision of rehabilitation services to children with cerebral palsy and their relationship with classification systems and other aspects are considered and analyzed. The influence of the provision of rehabilitation services by a multidisciplinary rehabilitation team on the functional state of children with cerebral palsy according to the level of the classification system of basic motor functions is substantiated. The study also investigated how the provision of medical and rehabilitation services affects the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. All of these aspects of the study aimed to improve the provision of services to children with cerebral palsy and their functional status and quality of life.

Conclusions. The research demonstrates the need for an in-depth analysis of the examination of children with cerebral palsy and the introduction of family-oriented care. It was found that the development of multidisciplinary rehabilitation teams is effective in achieving the best results in developing children with cerebral palsy. The importance of further research to improve individual rehabilitation programs and improve the quality of life of these children is also substantiated.

No conflict of interests was declared by the author.


Achilles RF. (1955). Communicative anomalies of individuals with cerebral palsy. Cerebral Palsy Review. 16: 15-24.

Adams VJ. (2009). Understanding function and other outcomes in cerebral palsy. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 20: 567-575.; PMid:19643354 PMCid:PMC2719719

Agarwal S, Scher MS, Tilton A. (2021). Cerebral palsy and rehabilitative care: The role of home-based care and family-centered approach. Indian Pediatrics. 58(9): 813-814.; PMid:34508333 PMCid:PMC8464190

Andersen G, Mjoen TR, Vik T. (2010). Prevalence of speech problems and the use of augmentative and alternative communication in children with cerebral palsy: a registry-based study in Norway. Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication. 19: 12-20.

Arnaud C, Julsen HS, Himmelmann K. (2018). Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe (SCPE): scientific report 1998-2018. [Internet]. URL:

Balgayeva M, Bulekbayeva S. (2018). Effectiveness of the combined use of robotic kinesiotherapy and botulinum therapy in the complex rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 11: 360-364.

Beckers LW, Schnackers ML, Janssen-Potten YJ, Kleijnen J, Steenbergen B. (2017). Feasibility and effect of home-based therapy programs for children with cerebral palsy: a protocol for a systematic review. British Medical Journal Open. 7: e013687.; PMid:28237960 PMCid:PMC5337681

Ben-Pazi H, Beni-Adani L, Lamdan R. (2020). Accelerating telemedicine for cerebral palsy during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Frontiers Neurology. 11: 746.; PMid:32670193 PMCid:PMC7332840

Bunning K, Gona JK, Newton CR, Andrews F, Blazey C, Ruddock H et al. (2020). Empowering self-help groups for caregivers of children with disabilities in Kilifi, Kenya: Impacts and their underlying mechanisms. PLoS One. 15(3): e0229851.; PMid:32150566 PMCid:PMC7062261

Colver A, Jessen C. (2000). Measurement of health status and quality of life in neonatal follow-up studies. Seminars in Neonatology. 5(2): 149-157.; PMid:10859709

Forssberg H, Damiano DL, Armstrong R. (2022). «Better together»: Achieving a global professional network for childhood disability. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 64(3): 277-278.; PMid:35120265

Garratt A, Schmidt L, Mackintosh A, Fitzpatrick R. (2002). Quality of life measurement: bibliographic study of patient assessed health outcome measures. British Medical Journal. 324(7351): 1417.; PMid:12065262 PMCid:PMC115850

Gilmore R, Sakzewski L, Boyd R. (2010). Upper limb activity measures for 5- to 16-year-old children with congenital hemiplegia: a systematic review. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 52: 14-21.; PMid:19811513

Gorter JW, Ketelaar M, Rosenbaum P, Helders PJ, Palisano R. (2009). Use of the GMFCS in infants with CP: the need for reclassification at age 2 years or older. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 51: 46-52.; PMid:19018834

Hidecker MJ, Paneth N, Rosenbaum PL, Kent RD, Lillie J, Eulenberg JB et al. (2011). Developing and validating the Communication Function Classification System for individuals with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 53(8): 704-710.; PMid:21707596 PMCid:PMC3130799

Hidecker MJC. (2010). Communication activity and participation research. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 52: 408-409.; PMid:20059523

Hoare B, Imms C, Villanueva E, Rawicki HB, Matyas T, Carey L. (2013). Intensive therapy following upper limb botulinum toxin A injection in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 55(3): 238-247.; PMid:23236956

Holovska IS, Lazorenko TM. (2009). Social and psychological work with families raising children with cerebral palsy. Science and Education. 9: 87-91.

Jackman M, Sakzewski L, Morgan C, Boyd RN, Brennan SE, Langdon K et al. (2022). Interventions to improve physical function for children and young people with cerebral palsy: international clinical practice guideline. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 64: 536-549.; PMid:34549424

Jeevanantham D, Dyszuk E, Bartlett D. (2015). The Manual Ability Classification System: A Scoping Review. Pediatric Physical Therapy. 27(3): 236-241.; PMid:26020598

Leite HR, Chagas PSC, Rosenbaum P. (2021). Childhood disability: Can people implement the F-words in low and middle-income countries - And how? Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy. 25(1): 1-3.; PMid:32763088 PMCid:PMC7817866

Lukewich J, Edge DS, VanDenKerkhof E, Williamson T, Tranmer J. (2018). Team composition and chronic disease management within primary healthcare practices in eastern Ontario: an application of the Measuring Organizational Attributes of Primary Health Care Survey. Primary Health Care Research & Development. 19(6): 622-628.; PMid:29655397 PMCid:PMC6692827

Makworo D, Bwibo N, Omoni G. (2016). Implementation of family centered care in child health nursing: Kenya paediatric nurses' experiences. Nursing & Care Open Access Journal. 2(3): 49-51.

Miller L, Ziviani J, Ware RS, Boyd RN. (2015). Mastery motivation: A way of understanding therapy outcomes for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation. 37(16): 1439-1445.; PMid:25259559

Moreau NG, Bodkin AW, Bjornson K, Hobbs A, Soileau M, Lahasky K. (2016). Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Interventions to Improve Gait Speed in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Physical Therapy. 96(12): 1938-1954.; PMid:27313240 PMCid:PMC5131187

Narasimhan SV, Singh SS, Nataraja NP, Vinod SK, RathnaMala M. (2023). A Report on Cases with Communication Disorders at a Tertiary care Hospital in Mysore District of Karnataka, India: A Retrospective Study Across Five Years. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. 75(2): 594-599.; PMid:37274987

Nazar OV. (2012). Quality of Life Assessment in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Ukrainian Journal of Psychoneurology. 20(3): 125.

Novak I, Cusick A, Lannin N. (2009). Occupational therapy home programmes for cerebral palsy: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 124: e606-14.; PMid:19770175

Novak I, Morgan C, Adde L, Blackman J, Boyd RN, Brunstrom-Hernandez J, Eliasson AC. (2017). Early, accurate diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy: Advances in diagnosis and treatment. JAMA Pediatr. 171: 897-907.; PMid:28715518 PMCid:PMC9641643

Novak I. (2011). Parent experience of implementing effective home programs. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 31: 198-213.; PMid:21121708

Ohene LA, Power KJ, Raghu R. (2020). Health professionals' perceptions and practice of family centred care for children injured in road traffic accidents: A qualitative study in Ghana. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 53: e49-e56.; PMid:32113734

Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Bartlett D, Livingston M. (2007). GMFCS-E&R: Gross Motor Function Classification System Expanded and Revised. Hamilton: Institute for Applied Health Sciences McMaster University: 15.

Palisano R, Rosenbaum P, Walter S, Russell D, Wood E, Galuppi B. (1997). Development and reliability of a system to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 39: 214-223.; PMid:9183258

Petrenko AV. (2021). The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth in cerebral palsy. Physical Rehabilitation and Recreational Health Technologies. 6(1): 41-45.

Rao PT. (2021). A paradigm shift in the delivery of physical therapy services for children with disabilities in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical Therapy. 101(1): pzaa192.; PMid:33395475 PMCid:PMC7665735

Ren K, Gong X, Zhang R, Chen X. (2016). Effects of virtual reality training on limb movement in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 18: 975-979.

Rosenbaum P, Gorter JW. (2012). The 'F-words' in childhood disability: I swear this is how we should think! Child Care Health Dev. 38: 457-463.; PMid:22040377

Rosenbaum PL, Palisano RJ, Bartlett DJ, Galuppi BE, Russell DJ. (2008). Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 50: 249-253.; PMid:18318732

Samia P, Wamithi S, Kassam A, Tirkha M, Kija E, Moges A et al. (2022). Child disability and family-centered care in East Africa: Perspectives from a workshop with stakeholders and health practitioners. African Journal of Disability. 11: 931.; PMid:35936923 PMCid:PMC9350480

Scher MS. (2021). "The First Thousand Days" define a fetal/neonatal neurology program. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 9: 612.; PMid:34408995 PMCid:PMC8365757

Serdiuk OI, Krupenia VI, Prosolenko NV, Kauk OI. (2022). Organization of the interdisciplinary team's work in comprehensive rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Public Health in Ukraine. 4: 125-127.

Shukhova YV. (2018). Rehabilitation of Children with Nervous System Disorders. Moscow: Medicine: 1979: 256.

The Joint Commission. (2010). Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace: The Joint Commission: 102.

Trabacca A, Russo L, Losito L, Rinaldis MD, Moro G, Cacudi M, Gennaro L. (2012). The ICF-CY perspective on the neurorehabilitation of cerebral palsy: a single case study. Journal of Child Neurology. 27(2): 183-190.; PMid:21911416

Verkhovna Rada Ukrayiny. (2021). Pro reabilitatsiyu u sferi okhorony zdorovya. Zakon Ukrayiny 2021 Hruden 15, No. 1962-IX. URL:

Walker LO, Avant KC. (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (Fourth Edition). Boston: Pearson, Prentice Hall: 249.

Wolfe WG. (1950). A comprehensive evaluation of fifty cases of cerebral palsy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 15: 234-251.; PMid:14774878

World Health Organization. (2007). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children & Youth Version: ICF-CY. Geneva: WHO: 351.

World Health Organization. (2012). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva: WHO. URL: