Hepatic vein thrombosis in a child with COVID-19: clinical case
Keywords:COVID-19, hepatic vein thrombosis, thromboinflammation, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C)
Predisposition to venous thromboembolism is characteristic of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as thromboinflammation is one of the leading parts in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the cause of life-threatening conditions and death.
We presented a clinical case of hepatic vein thrombosis in a 1-year-9-month-old girl with COVID-19 who met the MIS-C criteria. The girl was admitted to the hospital on the first day of the disease with complaints of repeated vomiting, fever up to 38.5-390C, severe weakness, refusal to eat and drink, a slight cough. The severity of the patient’s condition was due to fever and intoxication syndrome. There were manifestations of acute pharyngitis. In the first days we observed leukocytosis with neutrophilia, moderate lymphopenia, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, hypoalbuminemia, accelerated ESR. On admissiona rapid antigen test and PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Abdominal ultrasound revealed microthrombosis of the hepatic veins with inflammatory changes in the vessels, a small amount of free fluid in the abdominal cavity. Echocardiography detected the presence of fluid in the pericardial cavity. The level of D-dimer was increased to 943 ng/ml. Subsequently, COVID-19 was confirmed by serological testing.
Conclusions. Thus, thrombosis of the veins of the internal organs, despite their rarity in childhood, can occur in COVID-19 and MIS-C and indicate thromboinflammation, which requires caution about their possible development and the correct diagnostic algorithm. Determination of the level of D-dimer and Doppler ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity allows the diagnosis of thrombotic events in splanchnic organs in patients with COVID-19 and provide adequate treatment.
The research was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. The informed consent of the patient was obtained for conducting the studies.
No conflict of interests was declared by the authors.
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