Mechanisms of formation of airway hyperreactivity in view of phenotypical heterogeneity and clinical deviation of bronchial asthma in adolescents (literature review)




asthma, adolescents, hyperreactivity, remission


Bronchial asthma is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of variable bronchial obstruction, chronic bronchial inflammation, bronchial hypersensitivity and remodulation. Modern therapy of the disease was aimed at these links of pathogenesis, and this concept postulated the need for long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs and, above all, topical inhaled corticosteroids. However, it should be recognized that the coherent inflammatory theory currently requires revision and new understanding, or even replacement with a new theory, which, considering these characteristics of the disease as an epiphenomenon, will serve as a basis for new approaches in treatment and prevention.

The aim of our work — to analyze the mechanisms of formation of bronchial hyperreactivity, taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity and clinical deviation of bronchial asthma in adolescence (based on the analysis of scientific sources).

It is extremely important to determine the risk of transition of the adolescents' bronchial asthma into adulthood, when chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases might develop. Among the main predictors of this risk such factors as age, obesity, early puberty, body weight at birth and in the newborn period and sex can be distin guished. Thus, some authors associate the risk of persistence of the disease with its onset in early childhood, and others — at the age of 6 years old. High body mass index and early onset of puberty are considered to be the predictors of persistent bronchial asthma. It is noted that low and extremely low birth weight of premature infants or rapid weight gain in the neonatal period are associated with a decrease in lung ventilation and the risk of persistent asthma in the future. It is believed that bronchial asthma in children is more common in boys than in girls, in contrast, during puberty, allergic diseases and asthma are more common in girls.

Conclusions. The above mentioned literature data give reason to believe that, despite advances in the scientific understanding of the pathogenesis of the main characteristics of bronchial asthma, there are great difficulties in using them in practice. Moreover, current inflammatory paradigm of bronchial asthma needs to be revised because it being a dogma becomes unproductive from a clinical point of view.

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.


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