Modern approach to diagnosis and treatment of seizures in newborns and early age children


  • V.Yu. Martyniuk Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • T.K. Znamenska SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.М. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • V.B. Shveikina SI «Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named after academician O.М. Lukyanova of the NAMS of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine
  • V.A. Galagan Medical Genetics Center NDSL «OKHMATDYT» of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Y.B. Bikshaeva Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Kh.I. Shveikina SI «Research Institute of Psychiatry of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine», Kyiv, Ukraine



newborn, epilepsy, epileptic encephalopathy, treatment, antiepileptic drugs, review


The article is devoted to the topical problem of neonatology and pediatric neurology — the diagnosis and treatment of seizures in newborns and young children.

The work presents an algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of epileptic seizures in children. It is indicated that the therapeutic effect of most antiepileptic drugs consists of modulation of voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels of membranes of neurons of the cerebral cortex, enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission or inhibition of activating synaptic transmission.

The issues of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiepileptic drugs are considered, taking into account the age characteristics of the child's body, in particular, newborns and early age children.

The problems of drug interaction were discussed. The properties of individual antiepileptic drugs, which are used in newborns and young children, are considered.

Emphasized are «polar» differences in the work of phenobarbital, which depend on the stage of epileptogenesis, namely: suppression of epileptiform activity at the early stage of epileptogenesis and its enhancement in the already formed epileptic focus (epileptic system).

The literature data on the differentiated treatment of certain epileptic syndromes are presented.

The issues on the prospects for the treatment of genetically determined diseases, which are accompanied by seizures associated with metabolic disorders, are considered. The modern high-tech methods of treatment of these diseases are noted. The role of diet therapy, co-factor therapy in the treatment of hereditary metabolic disorders, in particular, the ketogenic diet as a method of alternative treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in children, is shown.

No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.


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