Intra-Alveolar Hemorrhage in Certain Orphan Lung Diseases in Children (Lecture)
Keywords:children, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, Goodpasture syndrome, clinical course, therapy
The theme is relevant due to the diagnostic difficulties, severe clinical course and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and Goodpasture syndrome. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and Goodpasture syndrome are severe, life-threatening immunopathologic diseases due to alveolar hemorrhage and a hundred percent mortality within a short period of time after the onset of clinical manifestations. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis generally occurs in children at the age of 3–8 years as a separate condition, or as a stage of Goodpasture syndrome. It manifests itself as shortness of breath, pneumonia, prune juice sputum, hemoptysis, hemorrhage. During exacerbation, the patients' condition is determined by the degree of pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary heart disease, acute posthemorrhagic anemia. The exacerbation lasts from a few hours to 1–2 weeks. The duration of each episode and remission varies among patients being unpredictable. Each new exacerbation is more severe.
In Goodpasture syndrome, predominant pulmonary and renal vascular lesions of autoimmune nature are observed. It affects young males more frequently; is rare in children. Hemorrhagic alveolitis as a form of lung damage develops first; then, the kidneys are involved, and anemia occurs. Glomerulonephritis (GN) manifests itself as nephrotic syndrome with rapid progression of kidney failure. In case of the predominant pulmonary pathology, recurrent hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage are observed; in end-stage disease with cardiopulmonary failure manifestations, rapidly progressive GN and kidney failure develop. The second variant of Goodpasture syndrome is characterized by relatively slow progression of pulmonary changes and renal lesions. Goodpasture syndrome is rarely accompanied by GN from the onset to the end of the disease and pulmonary pathology manifests itself at the terminal phase of the disease. The treatment of both diseases includes lifetime therapy with glucocorticoids, cytostatics. Pulse therapy using these preparations, discrete plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin administration, syndromic treatment are carried out.
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